Porcine pulmonary surfactant-associated protein SP-C was incorporated into bilayers of chain-perdeuterated dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG-d62) and chain-perdeuterated dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC-d62) and into bilayers containing 70 mol% dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and 30 mol% DPPG-d62 or 70 mol% DPPC-d62 and 30 mol% dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG). The effect of SP-C on the phase behavior, lipid chain order, and dynamics in these bilayers was examined by using deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance. SP-C was found to have a similar effect on the chain order and phase behavior of DPPC-d62 and DPPG-d62 in bilayers with a single lipid component. In gel phase DPPC/DPPG (7:3) bilayers with one or the other lipid component chain-perdeuterated, SP-C was found to affect first spectral moment more strongly for DPPG-d62 than for DPPC-d62. This may indicate that SP-C induced a nonrandom lateral distribution in the mixed lipid bilayer. SP-C was also found to influence motions responsible for deuteron transverse relaxation in both the gel and liquid crystalline phases. The presence of 5 mM Ca2+ in the aqueous phase substantially altered the effect of SP-C on transverse relaxation in the bilayer.