Previous clinical studies have shown that nutrients and probiotic agents can alter the composition of the vaginal flora. The present in vitro study has shown that uropathogens have a growth advantage over lactobacilli, but potentially there are natural substances that could be applied vaginally to stimulate lactobacilli growth to the detriment of the pathogens. When chemically defined medium representative of vaginal fluid at pH 5.5 was supplemented with skim milk, it acted as a better substrate for Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 than for uropathogenic bacteria and Candida albicans. Lactobacillus MRS medium, even at pH 4.5, supports the growth of pathogens, but when supplemented with ascorbic acid or EDTA, Lactobacillus growth was significantly higher. When L. rhamnosus GR-1 was coincubated in a combined nutrient composition of vitamins and lactose, it survived better than Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. These in vitro results provide a basis for testing nutritional supplements to alter the urogenital flora in an attempt to enhance restoration and maintenance of a normal disease-free state.