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The effect of nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan scaffolds on rat calvarial defects for bone regeneration

  • Chatzipetros, Emmanouil1
  • Damaskos, Spyros1
  • Tosios, Konstantinos I.2
  • Christopoulos, Panos2
  • Donta, Catherine1
  • Kalogirou, Eleni-Marina2
  • Yfanti, Zafeiroula1
  • Tsiourvas, Dimitris3
  • Papavasiliou, Aggeliki3
  • Tsiklakis, Kostas1
  • 1 National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 2 Thivon Str, 11527, Goudi, Athens, Greece , Athens (Greece)
  • 2 National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece , Athens (Greece)
  • 3 National Centre for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Aghia Paraskevi, Attiki, Greece , Attiki (Greece)
Published Article
International Journal of Implant Dentistry
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication Date
May 24, 2021
DOI: 10.1186/s40729-021-00327-w
Springer Nature


BackgroundThis study aims at determining the biological effect of 75/25 w/w nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan (nHAp/CS) scaffolds on bone regeneration, in terms of fraction of bone regeneration (FBR), total number of osteocytes (Ost), and osteocyte cell density (CD), as well as its biodegradability.MethodsTwo critical-size defects (CSDs) were bilaterally trephined in the parietal bone of 36 adult Sprague-Dawley rats (18 males and 18 females); the left remained empty (group A), while the right CSD was filled with nHAp/CS scaffold (group B). Two female rats died postoperatively. Twelve, 11, and 11 rats were euthanized at 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-surgery, respectively. Subsequently, 34 specimens were resected containing both CSDs. Histological and histomorphometric analyses were performed to determine the FBR, calculated as [the sum of areas of newly formed bone in lateral and central regions of interest (ROIs)]/area of the original defect, as well as the Ost and the CD (Ost/mm2) in each ROI of both groups (A and B). Moreover, biodegradability of the nHAp/CS scaffolds was estimated via the surface area of the biomaterial (BmA) in the 2nd, 4th, and 8th week post-surgery.ResultsThe FBR of group B increased significantly from 2nd to 8th week compared to group A (P = 0.009). Both the mean CD and the mean Ost values of group B increased compared to group A (P = 0.004 and P < 0.05 respectively). Moreover, the mean value of BmA decreased from 2nd to 8th week (P = 0.001).ConclusionsBased on histological and histomorphometric results, we support that 75/25 w/w nHAp/CS scaffolds provide an effective space for new bone formation.

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