BackgroundObesity and its consequences are worldwide epidemic problem; therefore, studies with strategies and mechanisms that favor weight loss to improve outcomes in health are necessary. Effects of mushrooms on body weight are uncertain. The aim of this systematic review is to determine the efficacy of mushrooms in weight loss in animal preclinical models.MethodThis is a systematic review of preclinical studies of animal models of obesity (any type of non-aquatic mammal), which were exposed to edible and medicinal mushrooms orally in comparison with the control. The following databases will be used: MEDLINE (PubMed), Web of Science, BIOSIS, SCOPUS, and gray literature. There will be no restriction of language, date, or publication status. The primary outcome will be body weight loss. And the secondary outcomes include the total amount of food consumed by the animals, analysis of metabolic parameters, inflammatory mediators, mortality for any causes, and any adverse effect reported. A team of reviewers will select, in pairs and independently, the titles and abstracts, extract data from qualifying studies, and assess bias risk (using SYstematic Review Centre for Laboratory animal Experimentation SYRCLE’s risk of bias tool and the Collaborative Approach to Meta-Analysis and Review of Animal Data from Experimental Studies (CAMARADES) checklist). The standardized mean difference (SMD) will be calculated to measure treatment effect, with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The heterogeneity between-study will be calculated by I2 inconsistency values and Cochran’s Q statistical test, where I2 > 50% and/or p < 0.10 suggest high heterogeneity meta-analyses of random effects will be conducted as possible.DiscussionAlthough many experimental studies about the effects of mushrooms on obesity have already been published, there is still no consensus in the literature. This study will provide evidences of preclinical research on mushrooms and their relation to body weight loss in animal models of obesity, being non-aquatic mammals. Also, this systematic review will show the limitations and strengths of the studies available in the literature, as well as it will to encourage the financing of new studies by public health managers and governmental entities.Systematic review registrationPROSPERO (CRD42019125299).