Progressive compromise of antioxidant defenses and free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, which is one of the major mechanisms of secondary traumatic brain injury (TBI), has also been reported in pediatric head trauma. In the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the effect of melatonin, which is a potent free radical scavenger, on brain oxidative damage in 7-day-old rat pups subjected to contusion injury. Whereas TBI significantly increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels, there was no compensatory increase in the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) 24 hours after TBI in 7-day-old rats. Melatonin administered as a single dose of 5 mg/kg prevented the increase in TBARS levels in both non-traumatized and traumatized brain hemispheres. In conclusion, melatonin protects against oxidative damage induced by TBI in the immature brain.