Low-dose irradiation (LDI) exhibits a positive effect on osteoblasts and inhibitory effect of inflammation. Here, we test the hypothesis that LDI can promote osseointegration and inhibit the inflammatory membrane formation in the presence of titanium (Ti) particles. Endotoxin-free titanium particles were injected into rabbit, prior to the insertion of a Ti6-Al-4-V sticks pre-coated with hydroxyapatite. Two days after operation, both distal femurs of the animal were exposed to 0.5 Gy X-ray irradiation. All ani-mals were euthanized 8 weeks after the operation. The PINP concentration was determined at day 0, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after operation. Trabecular morphology around the implants 8 weeks after operation was assessed using micro-CT, then the maximum push out force of simples was assessed using biomechanics test. Five samples in each group were chosen for bone histomorphology study without decalcification 8 weeks after operation. The results confirmed that the LDI can significantly improve ingrowth of bone into the prosthetic interface and stability of the prosthesis when there was no wear particles. Although promotion effects for bone formation induced by LDI can be counteracted by wear particles, LDI can significantly inhibit the interface membrane formation around the implant induced by wear particles. Based on these results, we conclude that LDI may be useful for enhancing the stability of prosthesis when there are no wear particles and for inhibiting the interface membrane formation during the early stage of aseptic loosening in the presence of wear particles. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1688-1696, 2016.