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Effect of low levels of hydrotropes on micellization of phenothiazine drug

Authors
  • Alfaifi, Sulaiman Y. M.1
  • Kumar, Dileep2, 2
  • Rub, Malik Abdul1, 1
  • Khan, Farah3
  • Azum, Naved1, 1
  • Khan, Anish1, 1
  • Asiri, Abdullah M.1, 1
  • Džudžević-Čančar, Hurija4
  • 1 King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia , Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)
  • 2 Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam , Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam)
  • 3 Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 202 002, India , Aligarh (India)
  • 4 University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 8, Sarajevo, 71 000, Bosnia and Herzegovina , Sarajevo (Bosnia & Herzegovina)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Feb 06, 2021
Volume
38
Issue
2
Pages
386–399
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s11814-020-0710-3
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
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Abstract

Interactions within mixtures of the phenothiazine drug promethazine hydrochloride (PMH) and cationic hydrotropes ortho-toluidine hydrochloride (o-TDH) and para-toluidine hydrochloride (p-TDH) were investigated at different ratios and temperatures via conductometry to understand various physicochemical properties. Critical micelle concentration (cmc) was less than values of cmcid (cmc in ideal mixed system), indicating significant interaction among the studied constituents in solution mixtures. The cmc of pure PMH was also determined by measuring the surface tension for comparison. A variety of micellization thermodynamic parameters (Gibbs free energy [ΔGm0], change in standard enthalpy [ΔGm0], and change in entropy [ΔGm0]) were computed using conductometry. The micellar mole fraction (X1Rb, X1Rod, and X1id) of hydrotropes estimated by various theoretical models (Rubingh, Rodenas, and Motomura) was assessed, and the results showed a greater contribution of hydrotropes in mixed micelles along with their values increasing via an increase in mole fraction (α1) of hydrotropes (o-TDH/p-TDH). Negative β values suggest extremely favorable attractive interaction/synergism, as declines occurred in the whole quantity of amphiphile used for the desired purpose, leading to a drop of expenditure along with ecological concern. Obtained activity coefficients (f1 and f2) were always beneath unity, meaning nonideality was found between PMH and o-TDH/p-TDH. Like the conductivity method, the UV-visible and FT-IR techniques also demonstrate the interaction between the PMH and o-TDH/p-TDH.

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