To determine the optimal fat intake and source in nutritional support, we measured the protein-sparing effects of a structured lipid (SL) derived from 60% medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) and 40% fish oil and a 50:50 soybean to safflower oil emulsion (long-chain triglyceride, LCT). Male Sprague-Dawley rats received an enteral diet for 7 d with either all nonprotein energy as dextrose (control diet) or 10% or 35% nonprotein energy as SL or LCT. The rats were burned on day 3. Indirect calorimetry and nitrogen balance were measured on day 2 (preburn) and days 4 and 6 (postburn). Respiratory quotient decreased postburn. There was a significant increase in total energy expenditure postburn, particularly with 35% LCT. Nitrogen balance was best without fat and 10% fat compared with 35% fat and with SL compared with LCT. These results confirm previous studies that fish oil-containing SLs possess protein-sparing effects in burn injury and that 10% SL seems optimal for nutritional support in burn injury.