Intraduodenal administration of 70% MeOH extract of Japanese Angelica root (3 g/kg) and Peony root (3 g/kg) increased uterine contractile activities in anesthetized rabbits. The activities of both extracts shifted to the aqueous layer (positive at a dose of 1 g/kg) with successive fractionation of the extracts with hexane and BuOH, indicating contribution of a hydrophilic principle(s) to the effect. In some animal preparations, inhibiting effect of the extracts on uterine contraction was noted after the uterotonic effect terminated. The aqueous fraction (40 mg/kg) after being treated with hexane and BuOH also produced uterine contraction along with decrease of blood pressure through i.v. route, which was greatly inhibited by pretreatment of atropine, suggesting participation of cholinergic components in the effect of both extracts.