In this study, hydroxyapatite (HA) was incorporated in a poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) matrix and the thermal properties and crystallization behavior of the derived composites were investigated. The nanocomposites, containing 0–20 wt% HA, were prepared by melt extrusion employing a twin-screw extruder. XRD experiments verified an increase in the intensity of the characteristic diffraction peak of the α-form crystalline phase of PLLA with increasing HA content. By DSC experiments it was observed that the presence of HA increased the crystallinity during cold crystallization, leading to a shift of cold-crystallization temperature to lower values and to an increase in the melting temperature of the PLLA phase. Isothermal crystallization experiments at 100, 110, 115 and 120°C, revealed a maximum in crystallization kinetic around 100°C after the addition of HA compared to 115°C for pure PLLA. The crystallization rate of PLLA matrix in the nanocomposites decreased with increasing crystallization temperature. By using the Avrami and Lauritzen-Hoffman equations the exponent n was calculated in the range 2–3 and a theoretical approach verified that the HA/PLLA systems belong to Regime II of crystallization behavior. The investigated melting behavior of PLLA was attributed to better organized crystalline structure with increasing isothermal crystallization temperatures and might be related with the longer time necessary for the completion of crystallization.