Deep brain stimulation is used to alleviate symptoms of neurological and psychiatric disorders including Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, and obsessive–compulsive-disorder. Electrically stimulating limbic structures has been of great interest, and in particular, the region of the fornix. We conducted a systematic search for studies that reported clinical and preclinical outcomes of deep brain stimulation within the fornix up to July 2019. We identified 13 studies (7 clinical, 6 preclinical) that examined the effects of fornix stimulation in Alzheimer’s disease (n = 9), traumatic brain injury (n = 2), Rett syndrome (n = 1), and temporal lobe epilepsy (n = 1). Overall, fornix stimulation can lead to decreased rates of cognitive decline (in humans), enhanced memory (in humans and animals), visuo-spatial memorization (in humans and animals), and improving verbal recollection (in humans). While the exact mechanisms of action are not completely understood, studies suggest fornix DBS to be involved with increased functional connectivity and neurotransmitter levels, as well as enhanced neuroplasticity.