Citrus aurantium L., commonly known as bitter orange, is widely used in folk medicine, but there is little data in the literature about the effects on pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of essential oil obtained from fruits of Citrus aurantium on the maternal reproductive outcome and fetal anomaly incidence in rats. Pregnant Wistar rats were randomized into four groups (n minimum = 12 animals/group): G1 = control, G2 to G4 = treated with essential oil from C. aurantium at dose 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. Rats were orally treated, by gavage, with plant essential oil or vehicle during pre-implantation and organogenic period (gestational day 0-14). On gestational day 20 the rats were anaesthetized and the gravid uterus was weighed with its contents and the fetuses were analyzed. Results showed that the treated group with 500 mg/kg presented decreased placental weights and placental index, although the treatment with bitter orange essential oil did not show any alteration in maternal reproductive performance, toxicological effect, changes in ossification sites, and malformation index. In conclusion, the treatment of Citrus aurantium essential oil was not teratogenic and did not alter the maternal reproductive outcome.