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Effect of electroporation on the electroosmosis across hairless mouse skin in vitro.

Authors
  • Tokumoto, Seiji
  • Mori, Kenji
  • Higo, Naruhito
  • Sugibayashi, Kenji
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of Controlled Release
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Jul 20, 2005
Volume
105
Issue
3
Pages
296–304
Identifiers
PMID: 15894395
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

The effect of electroporation on the iontophoresis-produced electroosmosis across the skin was evaluated by measuring the permeability of hairless mouse skin, to mannitol, a non-electrolyte, in vitro. Immediately after electroporation by squared pulses (10 times/s) at 100, 150 or 200 V for 1 ms, anodal iontophoretic permeations were determined at 0.4 mA/cm2 for 4 h. The observed iontophoretic permeability of mannitol was higher with electroporation pretreatment than without pretreatment. The enhanced flux of mannitol induced by electroporation, however, was due to increased passive diffusion. The contribution of convective or osmotic flow caused by anodal iontophoresis on skin permeation of mannitol was decreased by the pretreatment. In addition, osmotic flow was decreased with an increase in the applied voltage for electroporation. In contrast, mannitol flux during cathodal iontophoresis at 0.4 mA/cm2 after 150 or 200 V electroporation was higher than without electroporation as well as anodal iontophoresis, but cathodal iontophoretic flux after electroporation was lower than without iontophoresis. The neutral high-molecular compound dextran rhodamine B was also used as a second model. Anodal iontophoresis alone did not increase skin permeability of the compound. However, electroporation pretreatment before anodal iontophoresis enhanced the skin permeation of dextran rhodamine B, which was due to increased osmotic flow induced by this combination. These results suggest that electroporation decreases the electroosmosis produced by iontophoresis, and that electroporation increases skin permeability to neutral low and high model compounds (mannitol and dextran rhodamine B) probably due to an enlarged permeation pathway. Thus, electroporation affects osmotic flow from the anode to cathode during iontophoresis. Therefore, one has to pay attention to the change in electroosmosis produced by iontophoresis for the combined use of electroporation and iontophoresis to attain a high skin-penetration enhancing effect.

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