Joint centre displacement may occur following total elbow replacement due to aseptic loosening or surgical misalignment, and has been linked to implant failure. In this study, the effects of joint centre displacement were examined using a neuromusculoskeletal model of the elbow joint. Isometric contractions were simulated at a range of joint angles during elbow flexion and extension. Displacement of the joint centre affected the force-generating capacity about the joint, due to changes in both muscle lengths and moment arms. The magnitude and direction of the maximum joint reaction force were also altered, potentially contributing to aseptic loosening and compromising joint stability. The relationship between force generated and the level of neural excitation to the elbow flexor and extensor muscles was also affected, suggesting that altered neural control patterns could be required following joint centre displacement.