This study investigated the changes in sugars, organic acids, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, phenolic profiles, total phenolic content (TPC), and antioxidant capacity of jujube fruits after four drying treatments (sun-, oven-, microwave- and freeze-drying). Sugar, organic acid, phenolic compounds, α-tocopherol, and β-carotene were qualitatived and quantitatived by high-performance liquid chromatography. The TPC and antioxidant activity of jujube samples were evaluated using the Folin-Ciocalteau method and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity, respectively. Freeze-drying resulted in jujubes with higher antioxidant activity and was also a good choice for the preparation of β-carotene from jujubes for the food industry. Microwave-dried jujubes had a higher content of protocatechuic acid, catechin, and epicatechin and maintained the same antioxidant capacity with the freeze-dried jujubes. The combination of microwave- and freeze-drying may be an efficient alternative with shorter processing time and, consequently, less impact on the nutritional value of the jujube.