Resistance to QoI fungicides (strobilurins, famoxadone and fenamidone) in populations of Plasmopara viticola (Berk & Curt) Berlese & de Toni developed soon after their introduction in France and Italy. Current resistance management strategies include limitation of the number of applications, use of mixtures and alternation of fungicides with different modes of action. The selection pressure resulting from QoI fungicides applied alone or in mixtures with non-QoI fungicides was investigated in whole plant experiments under controlled conditions. QoI-resistant populations of P. viticola gradually reverted to full sensitivity following consecutive transfers to untreated plants, suggesting that resistant phenotypes were less competitive than sensitive ones. When cycled on QoI-treated plants, reduction in sensitivity was greater for the QoI fungicide which had greater intrinsic activity on P. viticola. Sensitivity decreased at each subsequent cycle, resulting in almost full resistance after four generations. Mixture experiments indicated that selection pressure was affected most by the dose of the QoI fungicide and the nature of the partner fungicide. Folpet delayed selection pressure most effectively when it was associated with famoxadone or azoxystrobin. Mancozeb was least effective at reducing the rate of selection compared with the QoI alone, and fosetyl-aluminium was intermediate. Higher rates of selection were recorded when the dose of the QoI fungicide, solo or in a mixture, was increased from 1 to 4 microg ml(-1). Increasing the dose of the non-QoI partner fungicide in the mixture from 10 to 30 microg ml(-1) resulted in reduced selection pressure. These results suggest that the choice of the fungicide partner and its dosage in the mixture can significantly affect the success of QoI resistance management strategies under practical conditions.