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Effect of climate warming on a change in thermal and ice conditions in the largest lake in Poland – Lake Śniardwy

Authors
  • Ptak, Mariusz1
  • Sojka, Mariusz2
  • Nowak, Bogumił
  • 1 Adam Mickiewicz University, Krygowskiego 10, 61-680 , (Poland)
  • 2 Poznań University of Life Sciences, Piątkowska 94, 60-649 , (Poland)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics
Publisher
Sciendo
Publication Date
Aug 10, 2020
Volume
68
Issue
3
Pages
260–270
Identifiers
DOI: 10.2478/johh-2020-0024
Source
De Gruyter
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

Lake Śniardwy is the largest among more than 7000 Polish lakes. So far, it has not been a subject of detailed investigations concerning long-term changes in water temperature or ice regime. A considerable change in thermal and ice conditions has been observed in the period 1972–2019. Mean annual water temperature increased by 0.44°C dec−1 on average, and was higher than an increase in air temperature (0.33°C dec−1). In the monthly cycle, the most dynamic changes occurred in April (0.77°C dec−1). In the case of ice cover, it appeared increasingly later (5.3 days dec−1), and disappeared earlier (3.0 days dec−1). The thickness of ice cover also decreased (2.4 cm dec−1). Statistical analysis by means of a Pettitt test showed that the critical moment for the transformations of the thermal and ice regime was the end of the 1980’s. In addition to the obvious relations with air temperature for both characteristics, it was evidenced that the occurrence of ice cover depended on wind speed and snow cover. The recorded changes in the case of Lake Śniardwy are considered unfavourable, and their consequences will affect the course of physical, chemical, and biological processes in the largest lake in Poland.

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