In this work, polypyrrole (PPy) films were electrodeposited on electrochemically roughened gold substrates modified by argon plasma treatment. First, a gold substrate was roughened by a triangular-wave oxidation-reduction cycle (ORC) in an aqueous solution containing 0.1 N HCl. Then the roughened gold substrate was further treated by argon plasma. Encouragingly, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of polypyrrole electrodeposited on this roughened gold substrate modified by argon plasma treatment exhibits a higher intensity by 8-fold, as compared with the SERS of PPy electrodeposited on an unmodified roughened gold substrate. Meanwhile, the electropolymerization for pyrrole monomers occurring on the modified roughened gold substrate is easier. Also, the nucleation and growth of electropolymerization of pyrrole monomers on the modified and unmodified gold substrates are different.