Some studies have indicated that mitochondria may be the target organelle of plants. We therefore decided to assess the effects of the aqueous extract of Hyptis pectinata leaves on liver mitochondrial respiratory function in vitro. Eight rat livers were subjected to isolation of mitochondria by differential centrifugation. In an adequate medium, the plant extract was added at different concentrations. The analyzed data were: state 3, state 4 and respiratory control ratio (RCR). H. pectinata extract caused a statistically significant decrease in state 3 (at 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/mg protein) and RCR (at 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/mg protein). Respiratory state 4 was not altered by the increasing concentrations. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of H. pectinata leaves may not injure the mitochondrial inner membrane but decreases significantly the oxidative phosphorylation.