The effects of the acute injection of a rabbit anti-substance P serum (ASPS) were studied in normal rats and rats with hyperprolactinemia induced by 5-hydroxytryptophan and estradiol given as a short or chronic treatment. The anti-substance P serum decreased the release of prolactin induced by 5-hydroxytryptophan when this serotonin precursor was injected 24 h, but not 1 h, after the administration of the antiserum. ASPS reduced the hyperprolactinemia induced by short and chronic treatment with estradiol in castrated rats. This effect was observed 24 h after the injection of the antiserum. On the other hand, the injection of ASPS induced a significant decrease in LH levels in serum of intact male rats injected with 5-hydroxytryptophan 24 h after ASPS, and in castrated rats treated with short-term and chronic administration of estradiol, 24 h after the injection of the antiserum. These results suggest that substance P may have a role in the control of prolactin secretion and could play a part in the hyperprolactinemic effects of estradiol. On the other hand, substance P, under certain circumstances, may stimulate LH release.