Al0.38Ga0.62N/AIN/GaN HEMT structures have been grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on 2-inch sapphire substrates. Samples with AIN growth time of 0s (without AIN interlayer), 12, 15, 18 and 24s are characterized and compared. The electrical properties of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) are improved by introducing AIN interlayers. The AIN growth time in the range of 12-18s, corresponding to the AIN thickness of 1-1.5 nm, is appropriate for the design of Al0.38Ga0.62N/AIN/GaN HEMT structures. The lowest sheet resistance of 277 Omega sq(-1) and highest room temperature 2DEG mobility of 1460 cm(2)V(-1) s(-1) are obtained on structure with AIN growth time of 12s. The structure with AIN growth time of 15s exhibits the highest 2DEG concentration of 1.59 x 10(13) cm(-2) and the smallest RMS surface roughness of 0.2 nm. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.