Basing on information from questionnaires distributed to 4007 children of an age range from 5 to 15 years living in regions of different air pollution an analysis of incidence of upper airway diseases and socio-economic conditions of their families was carried out. The authors conclude that air pollution effects incidence of respiratory diseases. Children from highly polluted regions (Zabrze, Zdzieszowice) have higher incidence of respiratory infections than children from less polluted regions. Socio-economic factors also have an effect on incidence of respiratory infections in children. Children from well situated families have lower incidence indexes. Boys develop respiratory disorders more frequently than girls.