Abstract The data from this study, as well as from previous studies reported, suggest that children who have the benefit of ingested water fluorides continuously from birth have significant protection against dental caries. They also have a significantly lower rate of loss of permanent teeth, specifically first permanent molars, than children who do not get water-borne fluorides at the optimum concentration. The study adds further substantiation to Salzmann's previous large-scale study regarding the potential hazard of developing malocclusion as a result of early first permanent molar loss. Other factors, such as untreated caries and filled teeth with poor contact points, should be studied. Thus, the benefits which accrue from public water fluoridation programs may be measured not only in terms of significant protection against detal caries but also with respect to a reduced hazard of malocclusion, especially severe malocclusion which may be regarded as physically handicapping.