Abstract A new design of lithium ion batteries with tunable mechanical properties has been developed. Depending on the material design of the battery components, the battery can range from elastic to structurally rigid. Elastic battery electrodes have been fabricated by utilizing elastic polymer binders in the electrode construction. The design of structural batteries capable of carrying load is based on a fiber reinforced polymer composite structure. The first generation structural battery has been fabricated based on a high molecular weight polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) matrix achieving a modulus of 3.1 GPa and an energy density of 35 Wh kg −1. Remaining challenges in fully realizing a multifunctional structural battery are outlined.