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Situated action: A neuropsychological interpretation (Response to Vera and Simon)

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  • Cognitive Psychology
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Neuropsychology
  • Epistemology


Symbols in computer programs are not necessarily isomorphic in form or capability to neural processes. Representations in our models are stored descriptions of the world and human behavior, created by a human interpreter; representations in the brain are neither immutable forms nor encoded in some language. Although the term "symbol" can be usefully applied to describe words, smoke signals, neural maps, and graphic icons, a science of symbol processing requires distinguishing between the structural, developmental, and interactive nature of different forms of representing.

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