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EEG Characteristics to Hyperventilation by Age and Sex in Patients With Various Neurological Disorders

  • Khachidze, Irma1, 2
  • Gugushvili, Manana1
  • Advadze, Maia2
  • 1 Department of Human Psychophysiology, I. Beritashvili Centre of Experimental Biomedicine, Tbilisi , (Georgia)
  • 2 Faculty of Medicine, Georgian National University SEU, Tbilisi , (Georgia)
Published Article
Frontiers in Neurology
Frontiers Media SA
Publication Date
Sep 22, 2021
DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2021.727297
PMCID: PMC8493288
PubMed Central
  • Neurology
  • Original Research


Introduction: Hyperventilation provocation test(s) (HPT) concomitant to electroencephalography (EEG) may detect hidden disorders of the nervous system (CNS). There are various types of abnormal EEG in responses to HPT that provoke different interpretations. However, it is not evident how the onset time of pathological EEG responses to hyperventilation (PERH) reveals dysfunction of the CNS in humans. It is also not clear if age and biological sex affect EEG characteristics in response to HPT. Our previous studies have revealed three types of PERH (disorganization of basic rhythm, paroxysmal discharges, epileptiform activity) concerning the manifestation time of first, second, and third minutes. The current work aims to classify the PERH with regards to age (3–6, 7–12, 13–18, 19–30, 31–50, 50 > year) and the biological sex of the patients. Methods: This study examined the EEG of 985 outpatients with various functional disorders of the CNS. The patients were assigned to one of three experimental groups based on the time occurrence of PERH in response to the HPT. Results: The disorganized basic EEG rhythm in the first, second, third minute of HPT was observed across all age and sex groups. All three types of PERH in the first minute were comparable for both sexes. However, some discrepancies between females compared to males were observed in the second and third minutes. All three types of PERH in the first and the second minutes were found only in women. The second type of PERH has revealed at the second minute of PHT in 13–18-year-old five girls. Conclusion: The three main types of PERH were detected at the first minute in all age groups and sex in patients with various CNS dysfunctions. It is diagnostically informative should be used as a marker during the monitoring of treatment. The specific activity of the brain's response to HPT depends on time, age, sex. The data indicate that taking into account sex differences and age during HPT leads to better results. The sensitivity and severity of the NS reaction toward hypocapnia, stress, and emotion increase in women. Therefore, in such cases should not be recommended to expand functional loads.

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