Abstract Intelligent Vehicle-Highway Systems (IVHS) have been proposed in the wake of rapid worldwide growth in traffic volume and density. These systems involve the application of advanced sensor, communications, computational, and control technologies to the design of highways and vehicles to improve traffic flow and safety. Similar technologies have been applied in other transportation systems such as aviation and air-traffic control, and it is suggested that the human factors insights derived from these systems can be usefully applied, proactively rather than retroactively, in IVHS design. Several safety and human factors issues relevant to the design of IVHS technologies, both near-term and long-term, are discussed, including: (a) the optimization of driver mental workload in highly-automated “hybrid” systems; (b) the design of in-vehicle navigation aids and the resolution of display conflicts; (c) individual and group differences in driver behavior and their implications for training and licensure; (d) the evolution and integration of IVHS technologies; and (e) traffic management and the regulation of driver trust in IVHS. Successful resolution of these issues and their incorporation in IVHS design will provide for fully functional systems that will serve the twin needs of reducing traffic congestion and improving highway safety.