This study presents the results of dragonfly fauna research in the Turopolje region of Croatia. Faunal analyses were conducted in the period from 1986–2009, with some interruptions, while an ecological analysis (composition of dragonflies according to habitat characteristics such as vegetation structure, air temperature, cloudiness) was conducted in the period 2007–2009. Faunal and ecological analyses were carried out at seventeen and nine localities, respectively. A total of 35 dragonfly species was recorded, indicating high species richness in comparison to the total number of 67 species known in Croatia. Zoogeographic analysis of the recorded dragonfly species showed the domination of the Holo-Mediterranean element which indicates complex glaciation and interglaciation processes during the geological past in Europe, when the Croatian territory served as a refugium. The results show that the distribution and abundance of dragonflies are indicative of habitat characteristics (vegetal structure, cloudiness and air temperature). Dragonflies prefer mosaic habitats (diverse vegetation structure) with average air temperatures ranging from 26–28°C and sunny weather. Since this research was conducted in only a part of the whole Turopolje region, and only adult specimens were sampled, further research should be focused on the life cycles of dragonflies and their distribution throughout the entire Turopolje region.