In various developing countries of Africa, the formal education system is quantitatively and qualitatively inadequate. The economic system in these countries is unsuited to the environment since it was developed by and imitative of industrialised economies. The dependency structures of the economic systems retard self-reliance and popular participation and mobilization which could effect social transformation. There is a need to combine education and economic production. By so doing, individuals could be given new attitudes toward life and new tools for full participation in life. Close linkage of the formal and the mass educational systems is desirable. Examples of such organization from Mozambique, Tanzania, and Zambia are cited. The experience of the Serowe Brigades in Botswana is cited in detail. For these movements to succeed, international help will be needed in organizing, managing, and training the necessary staff.