Publisher Summary This chapter summarizes the aspects that affect the design and construction of high-performance, intelligent buildings that are both healthy and cost-effective. It provides an overview of the new LEED™ Rating System as it applies to the energy and atmosphere category. Since the LEED™ exam questions tend to focus on energy credits, especially strategies to optimize energy performance., therefore its important to pay attention to this category. The factors that one needs to concentrate on while preparing for the LEED™ exam in the energy and atmosphere category are discussed, which include: fundamental commissioning of building systems, minimum energy performance, fundamental refrigerant management, optimize energy performance, on-site renewable energy, enhanced commissioning, enhanced refrigerant management, measurement and verification, and green power. Building automation is one of the landmarks of today's society. Intelligent energy-management systems, a network of electronic devices, monitors and controls the mechanical and lighting systems in a building. Heating and ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are designed to provide air at comfortable temperature and humidity levels, free of harmful concentrations of air pollutants. Different types of such systems are available: single-zone/multiple-zone, constant volume/variable-air-volume. The chapter reviews the requirements and deficiencies of the HVAC system. Electrical power and lighting systems the fastest-growing energy loads within a building, hence affect the design process. As more and more high-rise, high-performance buildings are built, the planning for fire protection has taken on a real urgency. Fire-suppression design requires an integrated approach in which system designers analyze building components as a total package.