Abstract In situPCR and reverse transcribed in situPCR have been tested on leaves of sugar cane fixed in FAA, 4% PFA or 2% PFA+2.5% GA. In situPCR amplification of the gene coding for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase ( rbcL) was successfully performed following all three fixation protocols. As expected the PCR product was restricted to the plastids of all cells. Reverse transcribed in situPCR was performed on rbcL mRNA and in this case the PCR product was restricted to the plastids of the bundle sheath cells. This is the first report of in situPCR on plant material and only the second report of in situPCR with sub-cellular resolution. In situPCR on rbcL may prove to be a valuable positive control for future in situPCR studies on plant material.