Background Mechanical ventilation is the primary method of supporting organ function in patients treated in intensive care units (ICUs). Lung damage from mechanical ventilation can be avoided by using the correct ventilation modes. This study was designed to assess the epidemiology and treatment strategies of patients receiving mechanical ventilation in ICUs in Poland. Material/Methods This study was done using a point-prevalence methodology. Questionnaires requesting demographic data, indications for ventilation, variables involved in ventilation, airway access, methods of sedation, and mode of weaning were sent to 148 ICUs. Results Eighty-three ICUs took part in the study. The rate of ventilated patients was 73.6%. The indications for mechanical ventilation were: acute respiratory failure (40%), coma (40%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation (14%), and neuromuscular diseases (5%). Patients were ventilated by orotracheal tube (58%), tracheostomy tube (41%), and mask/helmet (1%). The mean tidal volume was 8 ml/kg and positive end-expiratory pressure was commonly used. The mean oxygen concentration was 40%. Synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation with pressure support was the most frequently used ventilatory mode. Benzodiazepine and opioids were used for sedation in 91% of centers. A systematic testing of the depth of sedation was performed at 48% surveyed ICUs. Ventilation monitoring with biomechanical methods was used at 53% of centers. Conclusions Mechanical ventilation is commonly used in ICUs in Poland. Almost half of the ventilated patients had extrapulmonary indications. Patients were ventilated with low concentrations of oxygen, and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was commonly employed.