Publisher Summary This chapter illustrates the upholstered furniture fire problem with respect to fire hazard analysis. The fundamental hazard to life that a person can encounter during the course of a furniture fire is the exposure to a lethal or incapacitating atmosphere. This consists of four elements: high concentrations of toxic gases, high levels of thermal radiation, high temperature air, and smoke obscuration that can interfere with the ability to escape. The relative importance of these hazard elements varies according to the type of fire: well ventilated, propagating fire; under-ventilated propagating fire; non-propagating fire; and smoldering fire. The chapter also discusses therole of other factors such as the distance from the fire, smoke and toxic gases, and toxic potency differences among commercial materials.