Completion of the genomic sequencing of rice has enhanced the discovery of new genes. Wild rice relatives are good sources for extending the genetic variation of cultivated rice. Reproductive barriers are commonly found in distant crosses of rice and are attracting attention. The combination of genetic analyses and molecular tools has greatly facilitated the molecular cloning of rice genes based on the classical approach and enabled the tracking of dissemination of the alleles for domestication. Basic information for population genetics study in rice is still being collected and is expected to provide an alternative approach for finding new genes. The wide genetic variation available in wild rice relatives and the combination of various genetic approaches will allow the analysis and understanding of genetic variation at the nucleotide sequence level, as well as the discovery of novel alleles by sequence-based approaches.