Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (EGMEA) have been tested for their acute and chronic toxicity to various organisms occupying different trophic levels in the aquatic ecosystems. The results obtained in this study and those collected from the literature clearly reveal that EGME does not present short- or long-term ecotoxic effects in the ranges of concentrations likely to be found in aquatic environments. Indeed, in general, concentrations of 1000 to 10,000 mg/L of EGME are necessary before significant adverse effects can be observed in aquatic species. Conversely, acute toxicity occurs in fish at about 50 mg/L of EGMEA, and reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia is affected by 0.06 mg/L of this chemical. A teratogenic effect-with a specific malformation of the eyes-occurs in Xenopus laevis in the presence of 75 mg/L of EGMEA. This study was partially supported by the French Ministry of the Environment as part of the PNETOX program (1998).