Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) has been developed into many products for the biological control of dipteran larvae, including mosquitoes (Culicidae), black flies (Simuliidae), and midges (Chironomidae) in various parts of the World. Bti appears to pose significantly less of a risk than other chemical pesticides used for mosquito control and eradication programs. Bioproducts based on Bti are highly selective with short environmental persistence, and thus they have very little potential to cause damage to populations of non-target organisms. So far, no example of an unexpected pathogenic organism being developed in the field as well as no examples of resistance to Bti both laboratory and field populations of mosquitoes have been documented. There are some indications that large declines in insect biomass can occur after long-term use of Bti in freshwater wetlands. However, no evidence for permanent damage to ecosystem function has been found. Organisms that utilized insects for food, adapted to the declines and either switched to other food sources or migrate (birds) outside of the treated zones to acquire insects. Even though over 40 tons of Bti have been applied in West Africa alone, no indications of human health or non-target effects have been reported.