Radix Astragali is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine, and its quality is closely related to ecological factors, such as climate and soil, in the production area. To provide high-quality Radix Astragali to Chinese and foreign markets, we used maximum entropy model and statistical analysis method, combined with data on ecological factors, Astragalusmembranaceus var. mongholicus geographical distribution, and index component content to predict the ecological suitability distribution of A.membranaceus var. mongholicus and establish the relationship between astragaloside IV and calycosin-7-glucoside in this species and ecological factors. Subsequently, we could determine the suitability regionalization of high-quality A.membranaceus var. mongholicus in Inner Mongolia, China. The results showed that the standard deviation of seasonal changes in temperature (40.6%), precipitation in October (15.7%), vegetation type (14.3%), soil type (9.2%), and mean sunshine duration in the growing season (9.1%) were the top five most influential factors out of the 17 main ecological factors affecting the distribution of A.membranaceus var. mongholicus. The standard deviation of seasonal changes in temperature, precipitation in October, precipitation in April, soil pH, and mean sunshine duration in the growing season were found to be the key ecological factors affecting the accumulation of astragaloside IV and calycosin-7-glucoside in A.membranaceus var. mongholicus. The regions with the highest-quality A.membranaceus var. mongholicus were distributed in Baotou (Guyang County), Hohhot (Wuchuan County), and central Wulanchabu (Chahar Right Middle Banner, Chahar Right Back Banner, and Shangdu County) and its surroundings in Inner Mongolia. Baotou, Hohhot, and their surrounding areas were the main traditional production areas of A.membranaceus var. mongholicus, and central Wulanchabu was a potentially suitable distribution area of this species. The main production areas were consistent with the actual production base of A.membranaceus var. mongholicus. This study therefore provides a scientific basis to guide the cultivation of A.membranaceus var. mongholicus.