In central and northern Meshera, Russia, the habitat of many characteristic peat bog species now show a very fragmented pattern. Peat mining and other human influences are the most important causes. As a result the potentials for viable populations ofcharacteristic peat bog species have decreased considerably. Of birds and butterflies, butterflies appeared to be the more vulnerable. To maintain and increase the potential for viable populations of characteristic species protection and restoration are very important. The most realistic restoration scenario, viz. changing partly disturbed peat bogs to undisturbed, shows a significant increase in the potential for viable populations for many species, especially butterflies. To bring protection and restoration measures forward, local environmental action programmes show great promise.