This study deals with the ecology and taxonomy of the weeds of Um Algura area-western Gezira State, Central Sudan. The study aims to:-identity, classify and document the weeds of the study area, to compare the past and the present situation of the vegetation, to see if there are any vegetation changes and to study some ecological parameters such as: density, frequency, abundance and the relationship between it. The taxonomic studieswere usedincluded collection; identification and classification. Species nomenclature and synonymy have been updated. Ecological studies have been determined. A total of 120 quadrates were used, (56) occupied quadrates were found, chi-square (χ 2) test used for types of association. A total of (82) plant species were identified belonging to (30) families. These species included (43) grasses, (27) herbs, (6) shrubs and (6) trees. The most dominant family was Poaceae which had 19 genera and 22 species. The ecological parameters results were determined as follows: Density (D) was 0.68%, Frequency (F) was 46.6%, Abundance (A) was 1.46%, and the relationship between density, abundance and frequency was 0.68%. There was a negative association between Ipomoea cordofan, Euphorbia prostrata; Corchorus depressus and Ischaemum afrum. There was a positive association between Boerhavia erecta and Abelmoschus esculentus while no association was observed for the rest of the species. The most important terrestrial species were I. kordofan, Xanthium brasilicum, B. repens, Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus Spp, Acacia nilotica, Cenchrus biflorus and Setaria verticillata. The present study record that the submerged weeds included the genera Heteranthera, Ceratophyllum and Ranunculus, the most dominant emergent weeds included Typhaangustata, T. latifolia and I. cordofan and the most important floating weeds were: Eichhornia crassipes, Salvinia molesta and Pistia stratiotes. Number of vegetational changes was observed in the study area. X. brasilicum, Eragrostis namaquensis, Ruellia Gondwana and Peristrophe bicalyculata were introduced in the study area as new species.