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Echocardiography and invasive hemodynamics during stress testing for diagnosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: an experimental study.

  • Leite, Sara
  • Oliveira-Pinto, José
  • Tavares-Silva, Marta
  • Abdellatif, Mahmoud
  • Fontoura, Dulce
  • Falcão-Pires, Inês
  • Leite-Moreira, Adelino F
  • Lourenço, André P
Published Article
American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology
Publication Date
Jun 15, 2015
DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.00076.2015
PMID: 25862827


Inclusion of exercise testing in diagnostic guidelines for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has been advocated, but the target population, technical challenges, and underlying pathophysiological complexity raise difficulties to implementation. Hemodynamic stress tests may be feasible alternatives. Our aim was to test Trendelenburg positioning, phenylephrine, and dobutamine in the ZSF1 obese rat model to find echocardiographic surrogates for end-diastolic pressure (EDP) elevation and HFpEF. Seventeen-week-old Wistar-Kyoto, ZSF1 lean, and obese rats (n = 7 each) randomly and sequentially underwent (crossover) Trendelenburg (30°), 5 μg·Kg(-1)·min(-1) dobutamine, and 7.5 μg·Kg(-1)·min(-1) phenylephrine with simultaneous left ventricular (LV) pressure-volume loop and echocardiography evaluation under halogenate anesthesia. Effort testing with maximum O2 consumption (V̇o 2 max) determination was performed 1 wk later. Obese ZSF1 showed lower effort tolerance and V̇o 2 max along with higher resting EDP. Both Trendelenburg and phenylephrine increased EDP, whereas dobutamine decreased it. Significant correlations were found between EDP and 1) peak early filling Doppler velocity of transmitral flow (E) to corresponding myocardial tissue Doppler velocity (E') ratio, 2) E to E-wave deceleration time (E/DT) ratio, and 3) left atrial area (LAA). Diagnostic efficiency of E/DT*LAA by receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis for elevation of EDP above a cut-off of 13 mmHg during hemodynamic stress was high (area under curve, AUC = 0.95) but not higher than that of E/E' (AUC = 0.77, P = 0.15). Results in ZSF1 obese rats suggest that noninvasive echocardiography after hemodynamic stress induced by phenylephrine or Trendelenburg can enhance diagnosis of stable HFpEF and constitute an alternative to effort testing.

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