BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project (OCSP) classification clinically subdivides cerebral infarction into total anterior circulation (TACS), partial anterior circulation (PACS), posterior circulation (POCS) and lacunar (LACS) syndromes. We compared the OCSP classification in patients presenting within 12 hours of onset of stroke with infarct site and size on computed tomography (CT) brain scan at 5 to 7 days. METHODS: OCSP classification was prospectively assigned by 1 of 3 observers in 43 patients presenting within 12 hours of stroke. CT brain scan was performed on admission to exclude primary intracerebral hemorrhage. Repeat CT brain scan at 5 to 7 days was used to classify recent visible infarction as total anterior circulation infarction (TACI), partial anterior circulation infarction (PACI), lacunar circulation infarction (LACI), or posterior circulation infarction (POCI). For each OCSP subtype, sensitivity and specificity were calculated by using CT classification as a standard. RESULTS: Median (range) interval from onset of stroke symptoms to OCSP classification was 5.0 (1.5, 11.75) hours. Thirty-seven patients had ischemic stroke, with recent visible infarction in 34 (92%). Sensitivity and specificity of each OCSP subtype was TACS (0.80, 0.82), PACS (0.56, 0.79), LACS (0.33, 0.88), and POCS (1.00, 0.97). Overall, 65% of OCSP subtypes assigned were correct when compared to CT classification. CONCLUSIONS: In this small study, we have shown that the OCSP classification within 12 hours of ischemic stroke onset compares with CT classification at 5 to 7 days. Larger studies are required to evaluate the validity of the OCSP classification in the early hours of ischemic stroke in guiding appropriate patient selection for acute stroke therapy and interventions.