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Eccentric exercise per se does not affect muscle damage biomarkers: early and late phase adaptations.

Authors
  • Margaritelis, Nikos V1, 2
  • Theodorou, Anastasios A3
  • Chatzinikolaou, Panagiotis N2
  • Kyparos, Antonios2
  • Nikolaidis, Michalis G2
  • Paschalis, Vassilis4
  • 1 Dialysis Unit, 424 General Military Hospital of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece. , (Greece)
  • 2 Department of Physical Education and Sport Science at Serres, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Serres, Greece. , (Greece)
  • 3 Department of Health Sciences, School of Sciences, European University Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus. , (Cyprus)
  • 4 Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, School of Physical Education and Sport Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Ethnikis Αntistasis 41, 17237, Athens, Greece. [email protected] , (Greece)
Type
Published Article
Journal
European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Feb 01, 2021
Volume
121
Issue
2
Pages
549–559
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s00421-020-04528-w
PMID: 33156414
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Acute high-intensity unaccustomed eccentric exercise performed by naive subjects is accompanied by disturbances in muscle damage biomarkers. The aim of the study was to investigate whether a causal relationship indeed exists between eccentric exercise and muscle damage. Twenty-four men randomly assigned into a concentric only or an eccentric-only training group and performed 10 weeks of isokinetic resistance exercise (one session/week of 75 maximal knee extensors actions). Physiological markers of muscle function and damage (i.e., range of motion, delayed onset muscle soreness, isometric, concentric and eccentric peak torque) were assessed prior to and 1-3 and 5 days post each session. Biochemical markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase) and inflammation (C-reactive protein) were measured prior and 2 days post each session. After the first bout, eccentric exercise induced greater muscle damage compared to concentric exercise; however, during the nine following sessions, this effect progressively diminished, while after the 10th week of training, no alterations in muscle damage biomarkers were observed after either exercise protocol. Additionally, strength gains at the end of the training period were comparable between the two groups and were mode-specific. (1) eccentric exercise per se does not affect muscle damage biomarkers; (2) muscle damage occurs as a result of muscle unaccustomedness to this action type; (3) exercise-induced muscle damage is not a prerequisite for increased muscle strength. Collectively, we believe that muscle unaccustomedness to high-intensity eccentric exercise, and not eccentric exercise per se, is the trigger for muscle damage as indicated by muscle damage biomarkers.

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