Getting cows in calf has always been a concern for dairy farmers. The term "close to profit" describing a cow as being close to calving and earning an income sums up the need to get cows "in-calf". Maximising the number of cows in calf or pregnant also maximises farmers opportunity to cull cows for other less desirable traits. In recent years there has been much concern about the supposed increasing rate of empty cows, with reports of empty cows reaching 20 - 25% in some herds. This issue is addressed in this report with consideration focusing on genetics, feeding and stock management. Reference is made to survey conducted enquiring upon farmers mating management practises (refer appendix one). There were 53 respondents to this survey.