Summary Anal fissure is an ulceration of the anoderm in the anal canal. Its pathogenesis is due to multiple factors: mechanical trauma, sphincter spasm, and ischemia. Treatment must address these causative factors. While American and British scientific societies have published recommendations, there is no formal treatment consensus in France. Medical treatment is non-specific, aimed at softening the stool and facilitating regular bowel movements; this results in healing of almost 50% of acute anal fissures. The risk of recurrent fissure remains high if the causative factors persist. If non-specific medical treatment fails, specific medical treatment can be offered to reversibly decrease hypertonic sphincter spasm. Surgery remains the most effective long-term treatment and should be offered for cases of chronic or complicated anal fissure but also for acute anal fissure with severe pain or for recurrent fissure despite optimal medical treatment. Surgical treatment is based on two principles that may be combined: decreasing sphincter tone and excision of the anal fissure. Lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS) is the best-evaluated technique and remains the gold standard in English-speaking countries. Since LIS is associated with some risk of irreversible anal incontinence, its use is controversial in France where fissurectomy combined with anoplasty is preferred. Other techniques have been described to reduce the risk of incontinence (calibrated sphincterotomy, sphincteroplasty). The technique of forcible uncalibrated anal dilatation is no longer recommended.