Abstract The neurotoxicity of amyloid β (Aβ) is widely believed to play a seminal role in neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease. We examined the effect of Chrysamine G (CG) on such neurotoxicity using the specific measurement of surviving neurons. CG was found to reduce the neurodegeneration induced by both the active short fragment of Aβ 25–35 and full-sized Aβ 1–40. In this study, we synthesized a new chemical compound from a monovalent structure of CG (hCG), with a lower affinity for Aβ, and compared its activity with that of CG. Both CG and hCG were found to be equally efficacious in reducing Aβ-induced neuronal death at a concentration of 0.1–1 μM, indicating that the mechanism of action for CG was not due to its chelating activity, but rather due to its anti-oxidant activity.