Abstract This article presents an approach for estimating the sexual dimorphism of adult crania using three-dimensional geometric morphometric methods. The study sample consisted of 139 crania of known sex (73 males and 66 females) belonging to persons who lived during the first half of the 20th century in Bohemia. The three-dimensional co-ordinates of 82 ecto-cranial landmarks and 39 semi-landmarks covering the midsagittal curve of the cranial vault were digitised using a MicroScribe G2X contact digitiser. The purposes of the investigation were to define the regions of the cranium where sexual dimorphism is most pronounced and to investigate the effectiveness of this method for determining sex from the shape of the cranium. The results demonstrate that it is better to analyse apportionable parts of the cranium rather than the cranium as a whole. Significant sexual differences (significance was determined using multivariate analysis of variance) were noted in the shape of the midsagittal curve of the vault, upper face, the region of the nose, orbits, and palate. No differences were recorded either in the shape of the cranium as a whole or in the regions of the base and the neurocranium. The greatest accuracy in determining sex was found in the region of the upper face (100% of study subjects correctly classified) and the midsagittal curve of the vault (99% of study subjects correctly classified).