Abstract The changes of the nuclear components caused by castration and testosterone injection were studied in epithelial cells of the ventral prostate of the rat. Castration drastically diminishes the nuclear and nucleolar volume, as well as the fraction of the nuclear volume occupied by non-nucleolar ribonucleoprotein (RNP) fibrils. However, in castrated animals the frequency of perichromatin granules (PCG) is 79% higher than in controls. Testosterone injection causes a reduction of the number of PCG to 33% of the castrated level in 15 min, and increases the non-nucleolar RNP fibrils. Other parameters such as nuclear and nucleolar volume and the relative volume of the compact chromatin present only small changes in a period of 2 h following the hormone administration. High resolution quantitative autoradiography demonstrates that the transportation of previously synthesized RNA increases steeper than the RNA synthesis. All these effects are similar to those caused by ovariectomy and estradiol injection on the nuclear structures of endometrial epithelial cells. These similarities and other observations suggest that PCGs contain mRNA, of a few genes, stored in the nucleus by a restriction of its transportation to the cytoplasm.