Molecular mechanisms governing peritonitis caused by the presence of aseptic gauze have remained unclear. To identify the genes involved, sterile gauze-exposed omentum was collected at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h intervals, and analyzed by differential display RT(reverse transcription)-PCR. Among over 1,200 bands, 230 bands were found differentially expressed. These bands represented the fragment sizes of approximately 200 to 1,500 bp. The eight fragments were expressed differentially in the treatment group but not in the control. The sequences of two bands were similar to those of genes associated with the inflammatory process and a band was related to repair and regeneration process. Another one was related with spermatogonia and the rest four were unknown. Additionally, amplicons corresponding to the full-length sequences of two inflammatory gene fragments were synthesized by rapid amplification of cDNA end PCR. One showed 99% similarity to the major histocompatibility complex class II dog leukocyte antigen-DR beta chain and the other was canis familiaris proteasome beta type 3. Results of the present study suggested that sterile gauze induced the differential expression of genes in the omentum involved in inflammation and healing process.