Abstract Mitochondria move along cytoskeletal tracks, fuse and divide. These dynamic features have been shown to be critical for several mitochondrial functions in cell viability and cell death. After a rapid recall of the proteic machineries that are known to be involved, the review will focus on lipids, other key molecular actors of membrane dynamics. A summary of the current knowledge on lipids and their implication in various cellular membrane fusion/fission processes will be first presented. The review will then report what has been discovered or can be expected on the role of the different families of lipids in mitochondrial membrane fusion and fission processes.