Background Health checks for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) have been recommended as one component of health policy responses to the poorer health of people with ID. This review summarises evidence on the impact of health checks on the health and well-being of people with ID. Methods Electronic literature searches and email contacts were used to identify literature relevant to the impact of health checks for people with ID. Results A total of 38 publications were identified. These involved checking the health of over 5000 people with ID from a range of countries including a full range of people with ID. Health checks consistently led to detection of unmet health needs and targeted actions to address health needs. Conclusions Health checks are effective in identifying previously unrecognised health needs, including life-threatening conditions. Future research should consider strategies for optimising the cost-effectiveness or efficiency of health checks.